Alloy ASTM F-15 Nicofe

Consisting of 29% Nickel, 17% Cobalt, and the balance Iron, this alloy is produced to ensure good properties for machining and deep drawing. Its expansion characteristics match borosilicate (Pyrex) glasses and alumina ceramics, and it is one of the most popular of the controlled expansion alloys for hermetic sealing.

Also known as: Kovar1, Pernifer 29182 , Dilvar P13 , Rodar1, NILO K4

Applications

  • Power Tubes
  • Microwave tubes
  • Transistors
  • Diodes
  • Hybrid packages


Invar 36

Consisting of 36% Nickel, and the balance Iron, this alloy has very low expansion characteristics around ambient temperatures, and is often used where minimum expansion is required.

Also known as: Invar 361, Pernifer 362, NILO 364, Invar3

Applications

  • Optoelectronics
  • Optical and laser benches
  • Electronics
  • Diodes
  • Scientific instruments


Ultra 36

A high quality Fe36Ni Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) reinforced with 20 vol.% micron scale silicon nitride ceramic. It is manufactured using a powder metallurgy methodology and a mechanical alloying process to ensure a homogeneous reinforcement distribution. This provides a refined grain structure for enhancing mechanical properties. The material has 10% lower density, lower CTE, good thermal stability and a higher yield over conventional wrought Fe36Ni alloys.

Applications

  • Construction of satellites
  • Cryogenics
  • Opto-mechanical applications
  • Production of carbon fibre reinforced polymers


Super Invar 32-51

Consisting of 32% Nickel, 5% Cobalt, and the balance Iron, this alloy exhibits minimum thermal expansion (one half of Invar 36) at room temperature. It is often used in structural components, supports and substrates requiring precision measurements

Applications

  • Optical and laser systems
  • Telescopes
  • Laser bench tops
  • Ring laser gyroscopes


Alloy 52

Consisting of 
51% Nickel, and the balance Iron, this alloy is used in a wide variety of electronic applications, especially for glass seals.

Also known as: Pernifer 502, NILO 50, Glass Seal 521

Applications

  • Glass to metal seals for electronic tubes
  • Automotive and industrial lamps
  • Specialty hermetic devices


Alloy 48

Consisting of 48% Nickel, and the balance Iron this alloy is used in a variety of electronic applications, especially for glass and ceramic seals.

Also known as: Pernifer 482, NILO 48, Glass Seal 481

Applications

  • Glass to metal seals for electronic tubes and hermetic devices


Alloy 46

Consisting of 46% Nickel, and the balance Iron, this alloy is used in a variety of electronic applications, especially for glass and ceramic seals.

Also known as: Pernifer 462, NILO 46, Glass Seal 461

Applications

  • Glass to metal seals for electronic tubes and hermetic devices


Alloy 42

Consisting of 42% Nickel, and the balance Iron, this alloy is used in a wide range of electronic applications, lead frames, and especially for glass and ceramic seals.

Also known as: Pernifer 422, NILO 424, Glass Seal 421

Applications

  • Glass to metal seals for electronic tubes
  • Hermetic packages
  • Automotive and industrial lamps


Nickel 200 / 201 / 205 / 233

Commercially pure, un-alloyed Nickel, used in electronics for packaging, leads, and lids.

Applications

  • Getter tabs
  • Heating element sheathing
  • Anodes
  • Special purpose electron tubes
  • Fuel cells
  • Ni-Cd batteries
  • Transistor enclosures
  • Spark gaps
  • Terminals
  • Anodes
  • Cathodes
  • Shields
  • Semi-conductor supports


Nickel 270

Commercially pure, powder metallurgy, un-alloyed Nickel, used in electronics for packaging, leads, and lids.

Applications

  • Anodes plates
  • Hydrogen thyratron components
  • Cathode shanks
  • Plater bars
  • Transistor enclosures


Controlled Expansion Property Comparisons

Physical Properties Kovar Alloy 52 Alloy 48 Alloy 46 Alloy 42 Alloy 42-6 Invar 36 Super Invar 32-5
Density lb/cu in 0.302 0.3 0.298 0.295 0.293 0.293 0.291 0.294
Specific Gravity 8.36 8.3 8.25 8.17 8.12 8.12 8.05 8.15
Curie Temp °F 815 986 880 860 716 560 535 470
Curie Temp °C 435 530 471 460 380 293 279 245
Melting Point °F 2640 2600 2600 2600 2600 2600 2600 2600
Melting Point °C 1449 1427 1427 1427 1427 1427 1427 1427
Electrical Resistivity micro-ohm-cm 49 44 49 47 68 97 84 82
Electrical Resistivity ohm-cir mil/ft 294 258 290 277 400 570 495 481
Thermal Conductivity W/cm °C 0.17 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.13 0.10 0.10
Thermal Conductivity BTU- in/ sq. ft hr- °F 120 97 90 79.2 74.5 87 72.6 72.6
Specific Heat Cal/g- °C 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.123 0.12
Specific Heat BTU/lbm- °F 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.123 0.12
Thermal Expansion ppm/°F (75°F to 842°F) 2.9 5.5 5.0 4.4 3.9 5.9 4.9 4.5
Thermal Expansion ppm/°C (25°C to 450°C) 5.3 9.9 9.0 7.9 7.0 10.6 8.9 8.0

Mechanical Properties Kovar Alloy 52 Alloy 48 Alloy 46 Alloy 42 Alloy 42-6 Invar 36 Super Invar 32-5
Tensile Strength ksi 75 80 79 80 82 80 75 70
Tensile Strength MPa 518 552 545 552 566 552 518 483
Yield Strength ksi 40 40 36 35 34 40 40 40
Yield Strength MPa 276 276 248 242 235 276 276 276
Elongation % in 2 in. 30 35 30 30 30 30 34 40
Typical Hardness Ann. Rockwell HRB 80 HRB 80 HRB 80 HRB 80 HRB 80 HRB 80 HRB 80 HRB 75
Modulus of Elasticity Mpsi 30 23 23 23 21.5 23 20.5 21.0
Modulus of Elasticity kMPa 207 159 159 159 148 159 141 145

Chemistry Kovar Alloy 52 Alloy 48 Alloy 46 Alloy 42 Alloy 42-6 Invar 36 Super Invar 32-5
maximum % unless noted
Iron Bal Bal Bal Bal Bal Bal Bal Bal
Nominal Nickel 29 50.5 48 46 41 42 36 32
Nominal Cobalt 17 - - - - - 0.5 5
Carbon 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.05
Silicon 0.20 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.40 0.25
Sulfur - 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.015 0.015
Chromium 0.20 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 5.6 nom. 0.25 0.25
Titanium - - - - - - -
Magnesium - - - - - - -

Specifications Kovar Alloy 52 Alloy 48 Alloy 46 Alloy 42 Alloy 42-6 Invar 36
ASTM F-15/ F-1466 F-30 F-30 F-30 F-30 F-31 F-1684
MIL I-23011 CI 1 I-23011 CI 2 I-23011 CI 3 I-23011 CI 4 I-23011 CI 5 I-23011 CI 6 I-23011 CI 7
AMS I-23011 CI 1 I-23011 CI 2 I-23011 CI 3 I-23011 CI 4 I-23011 CI 5 I-23011 CI 6 I-23011 CI 7

References

1Trademark Carpenter Technology Corp., Reading PA
2Trademark ThyseenKrupp-VDM, Germany
3Trademark Aperam Alloys, France
4Trademark Special Metals Corporation, USA